Ngày đăng: 16/06/2020  

What is nano? How nanotechnology is applied in life


Science and technology is currently on the strong development. In particular, the most prominent is nanotechnology. The birth and development of this technology industry has created a turning point in the development process of mankind. So what is Nano? And what are the uses of nanotechnology in human life and health? Let's find out now.

What is nano? What is nanotechnology?

Nanomaterials are materials with a structure of particles, fibers, tubes, or thin sheets, etc. Very small size ranges from 1 to 100 nanometers. Accordingly, nanotechnology is the technology related to the design, analysis and application of structures, equipment and systems by controlling the shape and size of nanometer scale (about 1-100). nanometer).

Nano was discovered and developed from the early 21st century. With a wide range of analytical devices created. Prominent is the scanning probe microscope capable of observing atomic or molecular row sizes. However, the fact that nanoparticles have existed for millions of years in the natural world. Since the 10th century, nanoparticles have been used by humans to create nanomaterials. But did not know about it. Specifically, humans have created glass and ceramics with diverse sizes, different colors, ...

Nano có kích thước rất nhỏ khoảng từ 1 - 100 nanomet

Nano is very small in size from 1 - 100 nanometers

Fabrication of nano materials

There are many methods of making nanomaterials. There are 4 most popular methods:

  • Wet chemical methods: Including hydrothermal, sol-gel, and co-precipitation methods. According to this method, different ionic solutions are mixed together with a suitable fraction, under the influence of temperature, pressure, pH, etc., on which nanomaterials are precipitated from the solution. After filtration, drying, we get nano-sized materials.

  • Nano-mechanical method: Including methods of dispersion, grinding, mechanical alloys. In this method, materials in powder form are ground to smaller sizes. Today, the most commonly used crusher are planetary ball mill or rotary crusher.

  • Thermal evaporation method: Including lithography, vacuum deposition, physical and chemical methods. These methods are effectively applied in fabrication of thin films or surface coatings. It can also be used to make nanoparticles by scraping nanomaterials from the shield.

  • Gas phase method: Including methods of pyrolysis, electro-explosion, laser combustion, high temperature evaporation, plasma. The principle of these methods is to form nanomaterials from the gas phase.

Có rất nhiều phương pháp chế tạo vật liệu nano

There are many methods of making nanomaterials

Application of nanomaterials in life

Nanotechnology allows the manipulation and use of materials at the molecular level, increasing and creating special properties of materials, reducing the size of devices and systems to extremely small sizes. This is considered an industrial revolution, promoting development in all fields, especially biomedical, energy, environment, information technology, military ... and affecting the whole society.

In medicine - biology

Nanoparticles are considered to be nano robots that enter the body. Help people intervene at the molecular or cellular scale. Currently, humans have created nanoparticles with biological properties that can be used to support disease diagnosis, drug transmission, and destruction of cancer cells.

Các hạt nano có thể hỗ trợ tiêu diệt các tế bào nano

Nanoparticles can aid in the destruction of nano cells

Energy

Nanotechnology has contributed to improving the quality of solar batteries, increasing the efficiency and reserve of batteries and supercapacitors, creating superconductors as electrical wires for long-distance transportation ...

Electronics - mechanical

Nanotechnology helps to manufacture nano electronic components with extremely fast processing speed. Fabrication of generations of nano computers. Using nanomaterials to make extremely small devices for recording information. Manufacturing computer and phone screens. Create ultralight - super durable nanomaterials. Production of car equipment, aircraft, spacecraft ...

Các linh kiện điện tử nano với tốc độ xử lý cực nhanh

Nano electronic components with extremely fast processing speed

Apparel and food

The garment industry has turned a new page when applying silver nanoparticles. This nano has the ability to attract and kill bacteria that cause unpleasant odors in clothes. This useful application has been applied on some sportswear models. And in particular, also used in some types of deodorant panties.

Not stopping there, nanotechnology can make these foods change flavors as well as be more nutritious. This means that we will enjoy dishes with extremely strange flavors and high nutritional value thanks to food nanotechnology. In addition, nanotechnology will help store food many times longer by creating food containers with bactericidal properties.

Source: aqualife.vn


Keys:  Nanotechnology




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